A meat goat enterprise creates cash income from the sale of extra kids and culled adults. When starting, a good understanding of goats and the goat market will enable you to adapt a suitable production plan that includes appropriate breeds, numbers and farm size.
Never build your stock with animals from a sale yard that have been culled by other farmers. There is always a reason, to escape the problem as to why they were culled, because you do not want to transfer those problems to your stock! Some of the signs to look out for in healthy animals include: shiny coat, lively manner, easy movement (no limping, no swollen joints or misshapen udders), no abscesses, proper conditioning (not too fat or excessively thin), firm and pelleted dung, and well-shaped udder and teats.
Feed costs account for up to 70 per cent of the total cost in a meat goat enterprise. To reduce costs, adequate year round browsing and/or grazing with only mineral supplementation is the most economical way.
During the dry season, inadequate feed is the most limiting factor. According to KARI Mtwapa, farmers can supplement by using silage and hay, crop by-products such as maize stalks, forages from leucaena, calliandra, gliricidia, clitoria and centrosema, harvested cassava leaves left under the sun for 1 day to reduce poisoning, pruned mango tree branches, cow peas, local bran from pound maize and other grains as energy supplement.
On the minimum, an adult goat should take 2 litres of water per day. It is advisable that clean water is made available to the animals such that they take as much water as they like. Dirty water carries disease-causing agents.
Worms: Worms interfere with normal growth of goats. Some of the signs indicating worm infestation include: Diarrhoea, weakness, swollen neck, loss of appetite, sunken eyes and finally death. Deworm goats at the beginning and at the end of rains, when worm build up on the ground is high. You can deworm after every 2-3 months.
Ticks: To control ticks, wash your goats every two weeks with water containing acaricide using a piece of cloth or a hand sprayer. Wear hand gloves for protection against the acaricide. Use at least 1.5 litres of the mixed acaricide for each adult goat.
There are four main characteristics, which make a goat both suitable and profitable for production: adaptability to environment, reproductive rate, growth rate, and carcass value. When selecting foundation goats, pick animals that would mostly satisfy these criteria.
Cross breeding - mating individuals of different breeds – is recommended. It results in hybrid vigor; the superiority of the crossbred off spring to the average of both of its parents. Using crossbred females and producing crossbred kids can maximize the hybrid vigor.
Inbreeding causes small goat size, deformed kids and stillbirths. Inbreeding is mating closely related goats, for example father to daughter or granddaughter, or brother to sister. Keep not more than 2 breeding bucks in your flock for every 50 ewes and exchange them every year with unrelated bucks. Use bucks that are at least 1-year-old. Castrate or separate bucks not intended for breeding.
A serious farmer will have a keen eye on animals in the flock with the highest twinning rates. Goats can easily graze with cattle or sheep if they are in conditions where they can browse within a fenced area. Goats are browsers, and so they will eat shrubs and tall weeds, cattle eat tall grass, while sheep eat shorter grasses.